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E-Numbers - What they Mean

You are what you eat! Please use the following list to help identify exactly what you are eating.

E100
Curcumin
orange-yellow color, derived from turmeric, a member of the ginger family
E101
Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
yellow color, it's a vitamin!!!
E102
Tartrazine
yellow color, commonly used, the HACSG* (Hyperactive Children's Support Group) recommends to avoid it. Typical products are soft drinks, confectionary, cordials, pickles
E104
Quinoline yellow

not permitted in Australia
E107
Yellow 2G

yellow color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. People who suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it. Typical products are soft drinks
E110
Sunset yellow FCF

yellow color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Some people show allergic reactions to it (rashes, swelling, vomiting). Typical products are cordials, confectionary, packet soups
E120
Cochineal, carminic acid

red color, the HASCG* recommends to avoid it. Rarely used
E122
Carmoisine

red color, the HASCG* recommends to avoid it. Sensitive people and asthmatics may show allergic reactions to it. Typical products are confectionary, marzipan, jelly crystals
E123
Amaranth

purplish-red color, banned in the United States in 1976, still used in Australia. Avoid it! Typical products are cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings, jelly crystals
E124
Brilliant scarlet 4R

red color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Asthmatics and people with aspirin sensitivity may show allergic reactions
E127
Erythrosine

red color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Might increase thyroid hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism. Can cause sensitivity to light. Typical products are custard mix, biscuits, glace' cherries, canned cherries and strawberries
E128
Red 2G

not permitted in Australia
E129
Allura red AC

red color, may be an allergen in allergic skin conditions. Typical products are biscuits, cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings
E131
Patent blue

not permitted in Australia
E132
Indigo carmine

blue color, people with allergies should avoid it. May cause nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing problems and other allergic reactions. Typical products are confectionary, biscuits
E133
Brilliant blue FCF

blue color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it
E140
Chlorophyll

green to olive color, naturally part of man's diet
E141
Cpper complexes of chloropyll and chlorophyllins

olive color, no adverse effects are known
E142
Green S

green color, seems safe in small quantities
E150
Caramel

dark brown color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces, beer, whiskey, biscuits, pickles
E151
Brilliant black BN

black color, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it
E153
Vegetable carbon

black colour, banned in the United States, still used in Australia
E154
Brown FK

not permitted in Australia
E155
Chocolate brown HT

brown colour, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are chocolate cake mixes
E160(a)
Carotene, alpha-, beta-, gamma-

orange-yellow colour, converts to vitamin A in the body
E160(b)
Annatto (bixin, norbixin)

peach colour, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are dairy products
E160(c)
Capsanthin

not permitted in Australia
E160(d)
Lycopene

not permitted in Australia
E160(e)
Beta-apo-8'-carotenal

orange color, no adverse effects are known
E160(f)
Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid

orange color, no adverse effects are known
E161
Xanthophylls

yellow color, unlikely to produce adverse effects
E161(g)
Canthaxanthin

orange color, no adverse effects are known
E162
Beet red, betanin

purple color, no adverse effects are known
E163
Anthocyanins

violet color, seems safe
E170
Calcium carbonate

no adverse effects are known
E171
Titanium dioxide

white color, no adverse effects are known
E172
Iron oxides

seems safe
E173
Aluminium

not permitted in Australia
E174
Silver

not permitted in Australia
E175
Gold

not permitted in Australia
E180
Pigment rubine

not permitted in Australia
E181
Tannic acid, tannins

clarifying agent in alcoholic drinks

FOOD ADDITIVE CODE BREAKER - PRESERVATIVES

E200
Sorbic acid

possible skin irritant
E201
Sodium sorbate

no known adverse effects
E202
Potassium sorbate

no known adverse effects
E203
Calcium sorbate

no known adverse effects
E210
Benzoic acid

the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products are soft drinks, juices, cordials, chilly pastes
E211
Sodium benzoate

the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Typical products see 210
E212
Potassium benzoate

People with a history of allergies may show allergic reactions. Typical products see210
E213
Calcium benzoate

see 212
E214
Ethyl4-hydroxybenzoate

not permitted in Australia
E215
Sodium salt

not permitted in Australia
E216
Propybaraben

possible contact allergen
E217
Propyl4-hydroxybenzoate

not permitted in Australia
E218
Methylparaben

allergic reactions possible, mainly affecting the skin
E19
Methyl4-hydroxybenzoate

not permitted in Australia
E220
Sulphur dioxides

the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. May cause allergic reactions in asthmatics, destroys vitamin B1, typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products
E221
Sodium sulphite

see 220
E222
Sodium bisulsulphite
see 220
E223
Sodium metabisulphite

see 220
E224
Potassium metabisulphite

see 220
E225
Potassium sulphite

see 220
E226
Calcium sulphite

not permitted in Australia
E227
Calcium hydrogen sulphite

not permitted in Australia
E228
Potassium bisulphite

see 220
E230
Biphenyl

not permitted in Australia, can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are citrus fruit
E231
2-Hydroxybiphenyl

not permitted in Australia, can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are pears, carrots, peaches, plums, prunes, sweet potatoe, citrus fruit, pineapples, tomatoes, peppers, cherries, nectarines
E232
Sodium biphenyl-2-yl oxide

see 231
E233
Thiabendazole

not permitted in Australia, can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products arecitrus fruits, apples, pears, potatoes, bananas, mushrooms, meat, milk
E234
Nisin

no known adverse effects
E235
Natamycin

sometimes used medically to treat candidiasis, can cause nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhoea and skin irritation. Typical products are meat, cheese
E236
Formic acid

not permitted in Australia
E237
Sodium formate

not permitted in Australia
E238
Calcium formate

not permitted in Australia
E239
Hexamine

not permitted in Australia
E249
Potassium nitrite

not permitted in foods for young children, may cause dizziness, headaches, difficult breathing, potential carcinogen, typical products are meat
E250
Sodium nitrite

the HACSG* recommends to avoid it (see 249)
E251
Sodium nitrate

see 250
E252
Potassium nitrate

see 249
E260
Acetic acid

no known adverse effects
E261
Potassium acetate

should be avoided by people with impaired kidney function. Typical products are sauces, pickles
E262
Sodium diacetate, sodium acetate

no known adverse effects
E264
Ammonium acetate

can cause nausea and vomiting
E270
Lactic acid

could cause problems in very young babies, typical products are infant formula, confectionary, dressings, soft drinks
E280
Propionic acid

no known adverse effects
E281
Sodium propionate

may be linked to migraines, typical products are flour products
E282
Calcium propionate

see 281
E283
Potassium propionate

see 281
E290
Carbon dioxide

may increase the effect of alcohol, typical products are wine, soft drinks, confectionary
· Hyperactive Chidren's Support Group (HACSG), possible allergen
E296
DL-Malic acid

infants and young children should avoid it
E297
Fumaric acid

no known adverse effects
E300
Ascorbic acid

vitamin C
E301
Sodium ascorbate

sodium salt of vitamin C
E302
Calcium ascorbate

vitamin C, may increase the formation of calcium axalate stones
E303
Potassium ascorbate

potassium salt of vitamin C
E304
Ascorbyl palmitate

same function as vitamin C
E306, E307 E308, E309
Tocopherols

vitamin E
E310
Propyl gallate

not permitted in foods for infants and young children, may cause gastric or skin irritation, typical products are margarine, fats, oils
E311
Octyl gallate

see 310
E312
Dodecyl gallate

see 310
E317
Erythorbic acid

no known adverse effects
E318
Sodium erythorbate

no known adverse effects
E319
tert-Butylhydroquinone

the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. May cause nausea, vomiting, delirium. A dose of 5g is considered fatal. Typical products are fats, oils, margarine
E320
Butulated hydroxyanisole

the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. Not permitted in foods for infants or young children. Typical products are fats, oils, margarine, nuts, instant potato products
E321
Butylated hydroxytoluene

the HACSG* recommend to avoid it. Not permitted in foods for infants or young children. Typical products are nuts
E322
Lecithins

nutritious and non-toxic
E325
Sodium lactate

young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions
E326
Potassium lactate
see 325
E327
Calcium lactate

see 325
E328
Ammonium lactate

see 325
E329
Magnesium lactate

see 325
E330
Citric acid

occurs naturally in citrus fruits
E331
Sodium citrates

no known adverse effects
E332
Potassium citrates

no known adverse effects
E333
Calcium citrates

no known adverse effects in small quantities
E334
Tartaric acid

no known adverse effects in small quantities
E335
Sodium tartrates

no known adverse effects
E336
Potassium tartrates

no known adverse effects
E337
Sodium potassium tartrate

no known adverse effects
E338
Phosphoric acid

no known adverse effects
E339
Sodium orthophosphates

high intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium
E340
Potassium orthophosphates

see 339
E341
Calcium orthophosphates

no known adverse effects
E343
Magnesium phosphates

essential minerals
E350
Sodium malates

no known adverse effects
E351
Potassium malate

no known adverse effects
E352
Calcium malates

no known adverse effects
E353
Metatartaric acid

no known adverse effects
E354
Calcium tartrate

seems safe
E355
Adipic acid

no known adverse effects
E357
Potassium adipate

no known adverse effects
E363
Succinic acid

not permitted in Australia
E365
Sodium fumarate

no known adverse effects
E366
Potassium fumarate

no known adverse effects
E367
Calcium fumarate

no known adverse effects
E370
1,4-Heptonolactone

not permitted in Australia
E375
Niacin

vitamin B3
E380
Tri-ammonium citrate

may interfere with liver and pancreas function
E381
Ammonium ferric citrates

essential mineral
E385
Calcium disodium EDTA

not permitted in Australia
* Hyperactive Children's Support Group, substance may cause allergic reactions
E400
Alginic acid

no known adverse effects in small quantities. Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients
E401
Sodium alginate

see 400
E402
Potassium alginate

see 400
E403
Ammonium alginate

see 400
E404
Calcium alginate

see 400
E405
Propylene glycol alginate

no known adverse effects
E406
Agar
see 400
E407
Carrageean

Safe thickener containing iodine, calcium that regulate thyroid hormone
E410
Locust bean gum

no known adverse effects in small quantities, may lower chlesterol levels
E412
Guar gum

see 410
E413
Tragacanth

possible contact allergy
E414
Acacia

possible allergen, soothes irritations of mucous membranes
E415
Xanthan gum

no known adverse effects
E416
Karaya gum

possible allergen
E420
Sorbitol

not permitted in foods for infants and young children, can cause gastric disturbance. Typical products are dried fruits, confectionary, pastries, low caorie foods
E421
Mannitol

possible allergen, may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. Typical products are low calorie foods
E422
Glycerin

Large quantities can cause headaches, thirst, nausea and high blood sugar levels. Typical products are liquers, confectionary, dried fruit, low calorie foods
E432
Polysorbate 20

not permitted in Australia
E433
Polysorbate 80

may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
E434
Polysorbate 40

not permitted in Australia
E435
Polysorbate 60

see 433
E436
Polysorbate 65

see 433
E440(a)
Pectin

Large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort
E440(b)
Amidated pectin

no known adverse effects
E441
Gelatine

possible allergen, may contain 220, asthmatics and people allergic to sulphites beware!!!!!
E442
Ammonium phosphatides

no known adverse effects
E450
Sodium and potassium polyphosphates

High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium
E460
Powdered cellulose

no adverse effects known
E461
Methylcellulose

can cause flatulence, distension, intestinal obstruction
E463
Hydroxypropyl-cellulose

not permitted in Australia
E464
Hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose

no known adverse effects
E465
methylethylcellulose

no known adverse effects
E466
Sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose

no known adverse effects
E469
Sodium caseinate

no known adverse effects
E470
salts of fatty acids

not permitted in Australia
E471
Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids

no known adverse effects
E472
fatty acid esters of glycerol

no known adverse effects
E473
Sucrose esters of fatty acids

no known adverse effects
E474
Sucroglycerides

not permitted in Australia
E475
Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids

no known adverse effects
E476
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate

no known adverse effects
E477
Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids

no known adverse effects
E480
Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate

awaiting results of studies
E481
Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate

no known adverse effects
E482
Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate

no known adverse effects
E483
Stearyl tartrate

not permitted in Australia
E491
Sorbitan monos tearate

no known adverse effects
E492
Sorbitan tristearate

may increase th absorption of fat-soluble substances
E493
Sorbitan monolaurate

not permitted in Australia
E494
Sorbitan mono-oleate

not permitted in Australia
E495
Sorbitan monopalmitate

not perm
E500
Sodium carbonades

no known adverse effects in small quantities
E501
Potassium carbonates

no known adverse effects
E503
Ammonium carbonates

irritant to mucous membranes
E504
Magnesium carbonate

medically used as an antacid and laxative
E507
Hydrochloric acid

safe in small quantities
E508
Potassium chloride

large quantities can cause gastric ulceration
E509
Calcium chloride

no known adverse effects
E510
Ammonium chloride

should be avoided by people with impaired liver or kidney function. Typical products are flour products
E511
Magnesium chloride

magnesium is an essential mineral
E513
Sulphuric acid

not permitted in Australia
E514
Sodium sulphate

may upset the body's water balance
E515
Potassium sulphate

no known adverse effects
E516
Calcium sulphate

no known adverse effects
E518
Magnesium sulphate

a laxative
E519
Copper sulphate

essential mineral
E524
Sodium hydroxide

not permitted in Australia
E525
Potassium hydroxide

not permitted in Australia
E526
Calcium hydroxide

no adverse effects in small quantities
E527
Ammonium hydroxide

not permitted in Australia
E528
Magnesium hydroxide

not permitted in Australia
E529
Calcium oxide

safe in small quantities
E530
Magnesium oxide

not permitted in Australia
E535
Sodium ferrocyanide

no adverse effects known
E536
Potassium ferrocyanide

low toxicity
E540
Dicalcium diphosphate

not permitted in Australia
E541
Sodium aluminium phosphate
not permitted in Australia
E542
Bone phosphate

no known adverse effects
E544
Calcium polyphosphates

not permitted in Australia
E545
Ammonium polyphosphates

not permitted in Australia
E551
Silicon dioxide

no adverse effects are known in food use
E552
Calcium silicate
no known adverse effects, antacid
E553(a)
Magnesium silicates

not permitted in Australia
E553(b)
Talc

has been linked to stomach cancer, typical products are polished rice, chocolate, confectionary
E554
Sodium aluminium silicate

Aluminium is known to be neurtoxic
E556
Calcium aluminium silicate

see 554
E558
Bentonite

no known adverse effects
E559
Kaolins

no known adverse effects
E570
Stearic acid

no known adverse effects
E572
Magnesium stearate

no known adverse effects in food use
E575
Glucono delta-lactone

no known adverse effects
E576
Sodium gluconate

not permitted in Australia
E577
Potassium gluconate

no known adverse effects
E578
Calcium gluconate

no known adverse effects
E579
Ferrous gluconate

seems safe in small quantities
E620
L-Glutamic acid

might cause similar problems as MSG(621), young children should avoid it
E621
Monosodium glutamate (MSG)

can be an allergen, not permitted in foods for infants and young children
E622
Monopotassium glutamate

can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea , abdominal cramps. Typical products are low sodium salt substitutes
E623
Calcium glutamate

no known adverse effects
E624
Monoammonium L-glutamate

no known adverse effects
E625
Magnesium di-L-glutamate

no known adverse effects
E627
Disodiumguanylate

not permitted in foods for infants and young children
E631
Disodium inosinate

not permitted in foods for infants and young children
E635
Sodium 5'ribonucleotide

not permitted in Australia
E636
Maltol

no known adverse effects
E637
Ethyl maltol

no known adverse effects
E900
Dimethylpoly-siloxane

no known adverse effects
E901
Beeswaxes

occasionally causes allergic reactions
E903
Carnauba wax

occasionally causes allergic reactions
E904
Shellac

occasionally causes irritations of the skin
E905
Paraffins

may inhibit absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins, mild laxative, there may be a link to bowel cancer. Typical products are dried fruit, confectionary, collagen
E907
Refined microcrystalline wax

not permitted in Australia
E920
L-cysteine and its hydrochlorides

no known adverse effects
E924
Potassium bromate/center>
large quantities can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pain. Typical products are flour products
E925
Chlorine

destroys nutrients, carcinogen, in some areas tab water is contaminated with it, to make it 'safer' to drink. Typical products are flour products
E926
Chlorine dioxide

well.....basically see 925
E927
Azodicarbonamide

not permitted in Australia
E928
Benzol peroxide

asthmatics and people with a history of allergies BEWARE, see 210
E931
Nitrogen

seems safe
E932
Nitrous oxide

seems quite safe in small quantities
E950
Acesulphane potassium

???
E951
Aspartame

artificial sweetener, too many adverse effects possible to list !!!
E952
Cyclamic acid

possible carcinogen, not permitted in the USA and UK
E954
saccharines

not too bad in small amounts, I think
E957
Thaumatin

artificial sweetener; put it that way....the 'acceptable' daily intake has not been specified.
E965
Hydrogenated glucose syrup

mild laxative
E967
Xylitol

nobody knows
E1200
Polydextrose

seems safe in small doses
E1201
Polyvinylpyrrolidone

no adverse effects known
E1202
Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone

no known adverse effects
E1400-1450
starches

no known adverse effects
E1505
Triethyl acetate

part becomes alcohol in the body
E1510
Ethanol

alcohol
E1517, E1518
Glycerol acetates

seems safe
E1520
Propylene glycol

toxic at 'high doses'
*Hyperactive Children's Support Group (HACSG) www.hacsg.org.uk
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Carina is available to lecture for your group or institution on this subject.

Carina Harkin BHSc.Nat.BHSc.Hom.BHSc.Acu. is a practitioner of 11 years, complementary medicine lecturer of 4 years and mother of six in Galway, Ireland who practices what she teaches.

For an appointment call Carina directly on 083 34 66 333.

All products are available through www.carahealth.ie. Remember, we are here for a good time not a long time, enjoy your food life!

Carahealth Galway Ireland. Acupuncture, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, Herbal Medicine, Nutrition, Nutritional Therapy, Flower Essences, Iridology, Short Courses, Cosmetic Acupuncture

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