Grindelia is antispasmodic, depurative, expectorant, hypotensive, sedative and stomachic. Grindelia acts to relax smooth muscles of the bronchi and arteries and is a bronchodilator, specific for asthma, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Used internally, it slows down the heartbeat and reduces the stimulation of the nerve endings in the air passages that causes coughing. (1) Grindelia extract was prescribed in London hospitals in the 1980s for asthma and bronchitis. (2)
The main active constituents include the compounds flavonoids quercetin-3-methylether and 6-OH-kaempferol-3,6-dimethylether inhibit neutrophil elastase and contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of grindelia. (3) other active constituents include eleven phenolic acids, namely: caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic salicylic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and ellagic acids. (4) Other active constituents identified are Borneol, alpha pinene, trans-pinocarveol, bornyl acetate and limonene. (5)
The active constituents of Grindelia robusta, saponins and polyphenols inhibits inflammatory mediators IL-6, RANTES, MCP-1 PGE(2) and TNF-a. and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in a macrophage model. The biomechanical model proposed is associated with a reduction of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) p65 activation. (6) RANTES (CCL5) is a chemokine expressed by many hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that plays an important role in homing and migration of effector and memory T cells during acute infections.
1. PFAF. Grindelia robusta. 2019.
2. Grindelia Robusta in Asthma and Chronic Bronchitis. The Hospital. 1893;14(355):252-.
3. Krenn L, Wollenweber E, Steyrleuthner K, Görick C, Melzig MF. Contribution of methylated exudate flavonoids to the anti-inflammatory activity of Grindelia robusta. Fitoterapia. 2009;80(5):267-9.
4. Nowak S, Rychlinska I. Phenolic acids in the flowers and leaves of Grindelia robusta Nutt. and Grindelia squarrosa Dun. (Asteraceae). Acta poloniae pharmaceutica. 2012;69(4):693-8.
5. Fraternale D, Giamperi L, Bucchini A, Ricci D. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of Grindelia robusta from Central Italy. Fitoterapia. 2007;78(6):443-5.
6. La VD, Lazzarin F, Ricci D, Fraternale D, Genovese S, Epifano F, et al. Active principles of Grindelia robusta exert antiinflammatory properties in a macrophage model. 2010;24(11):1687-92.